CSS Pseudo-classes

Pseudo-Classes are a fundamental component of CSS that enable the selection of elements based on their state or position. Unlike regular classes that are defined in HTML, pseudo-classes don’t require changes to the HTML structure, providing a more flexible and dynamic way to style elements.

Basic Syntax:
The syntax for using pseudo-classes involves appending a colon (:) followed by the pseudo-class name to a selector. For example, :hover selects an element when the user hovers over it.

a:hover {
color: #3498db;

Here, the anchor (a) element will change its text color to #3498db when the user hovers over it.

In the below PDF we discuss about  CSS Pseudo Classes in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.


Common Pseudo-classes:

1. :hover:
As mentioned earlier, :hover is used to style an element when the user hovers over it. This is widely used for creating interactive and engaging user interfaces.

.button:hover {
background-color: #4caf50;
color: #ffffff;

2. :active:
The :active pseudo-class styles an element when it is being activated, typically when a user clicks on it. This is useful for providing visual feedback during user interactions.

.button:active {
background-color: #e74c3c;
color: #ffffff;

3. :focus:
The :focus is used to style an element when it gains focus, often seen in form elements. It is beneficial for enhancing the user experience in web forms.

input:focus {
border: 2px solid #3498db;

4. :nth-child:
The :nth-child pseudo-class allows the selection of elements based on their position within a parent. This can be handy for styling alternate rows or columns in a table, for instance.

tr:nth-child(even) {
background-color: #f2f2f2;


CSS pseudo-classes are a potent feature that empowers developers to create dynamic, interactive, and responsive web designs. By leveraging these pseudo-classes, developers can enhance user engagement, improve accessibility, and implement intricate styling based on the document structure.

Related Question

Pseudo-classes are selectors that target elements based on their state or position in the document structure. They allow styling based on user interaction, element attributes, or relationships with other elements.

Yes, an example is the :hover pseudo-class, which is used to apply styles when a user hovers over an element. For instance, a:hover can be used to change the color of a hyperlink when the mouse is over it.

Yes, pseudo-classes can be combined to create more specific selectors. For example, a:hover:not(.visited) will select links that are being hovered over and do not have the class “visited.”

The :nth-child pseudo-class allows you to select elements based on their ordinal position within a parent. It takes an argument, such as :nth-child(odd) or :nth-child(3n), to select elements at specific positions.

The text-align property in CSS tables is used to horizontally align the content of table cells. It can be applied to the th and td elements.


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