Transaction in DBMS

A Transaction refers to a logical unit of work performed on the database. This unit of work typically comprises one or more database operations, such as inserts, updates, or deletions. Transactions are executed as indivisible and atomic units, meaning they must either complete successfully and commit their changes to the database, or fail and leave the database in its original state without any changes.

In the below PDF we discuss about Transaction in DBMS in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.

ACID Properties of Transactions:

Transactions adhere to a set of properties, commonly abbreviated as ACID:

  1. Atomicity: As mentioned earlier, atomicity ensures that either all operations within a transaction are successfully completed, or none of them are applied. This property prevents the database from being left in an inconsistent state due to partial execution of operations.
  2. Consistency: The consistency property ensures that the database remains in a valid state before and after the execution of a transaction. It mandates that only valid data can be written to the database, preserving its integrity and adhering to predefined constraints and rules.
  3. Isolation: Isolation ensures that the concurrent execution of multiple transactions does not result in interference or data corruption. Each transaction should operate independently of others, as if it were executing in isolation. Isolation prevents phenomena like dirty reads, non-repeatable reads, and phantom reads.
  4. Durability: Durability guarantees that once a transaction commits and its changes are applied to the database, they persist even in the event of system failures or crashes. The changes made by committed transactions should be durable and not lost due to transient system failures.

Importance of Transactions:

Transactions play a crucial role in ensuring data integrity, reliability, and consistency within a database. They provide the following benefits:

  • Data Integrity: Transactions help maintain the accuracy and correctness of data by ensuring that changes are applied in a controlled and consistent manner.
  • Concurrency Control: Transactions enable multiple users to access and modify the database concurrently while ensuring that their operations do not interfere with each other, thereby preventing data corruption and ensuring data consistency.
  • Recovery and Rollback: In the event of a failure, transactions can be rolled back to their original state, ensuring that the database remains consistent and reliable.
  • Auditability: Transactions facilitate auditing and tracking of database changes by providing a clear record of all the operations performed within a logical unit of work.


In conclusion, transactions are fundamental to the proper functioning of a DBMS, ensuring data integrity, consistency, and reliability. By understanding the characteristics of transactions and following best practices for their management, organizations can maintain a robust and dependable database environment, essential for supporting critical business operations and applications.

Related Question

A transaction in a Database Management System (DBMS) represents a logical unit of work that is performed against a database. It comprises one or more database operations such as insert, update, delete, or select, which are treated as a single unit.

Transaction management ensures data integrity and reliability in a database system. It ensures that multiple operations occur as an indivisible unit, maintaining data consistency even in the event of system failures or concurrent access by multiple users.

Transaction rollback is the process of undoing changes made by a transaction that has not yet been committed. If a transaction encounters an error or if it is explicitly rolled back by the user, all changes made by that transaction are reverted, restoring the database to its state before the transaction began.

A transaction commit is the final step in a transaction where all changes made by the transaction are permanently saved to the database. Once a transaction is committed, its changes become visible to other transactions, and it cannot be rolled back.

Concurrency control ensures that transactions can execute concurrently without interfering with each other, while still preserving the ACID properties. Techniques such as locking, timestamping, and multiversion concurrency control are used to manage concurrent access to the database and maintain data consistency.


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