SQL Operators

Structured Query Language (SQL) serves as the backbone for managing and manipulating relational databases. One of the key elements that make SQL a powerful and versatile language is its use of operators.
SQL Operators are symbols or keywords that perform operations on one or more expressions to produce a result. These operations can range from basic arithmetic calculations to logical comparisons, enabling us to filter, sort, and transform data within a database.

In the below PDF we discuss about SQL Operators in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.

SQL Tutorial

SQL Operators Types:

1.  Arithmetic Operators:
Arithmetic operators are the building blocks for performing mathematical calculations within SQL queries. The basic arithmetic operators include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and division (/). These operators can be used to manipulate numeric data types, making it easy to perform calculations directly within the database.


SELECT salary * 1.1 AS increased_salary
FROM employees;

2. Comparison Operators:
Comparison operators allow us to compare values and determine relationships between them. Common comparison operators include “=”, “<>”, “<“, “>”, “<=”, and “>=”. These operators are crucial for constructing queries that involve filtering and sorting data based on specific conditions.


FROM products
WHERE price > 100;

3. Logical Operators:
Logical operators, such as AND, OR, and NOT, are used to combine multiple conditions within a SQL query. These operators play a vital role in constructing complex queries that involve multiple criteria for data retrieval.


FROM orders
WHERE (status = 'shipped' OR status = 'processing') AND total_amount > 500;

4. LIKE Operator:
The LIKE operator is used for pattern matching within string values. It allows the use of wildcard characters such as ‘%’ (matches any sequence of characters) and ‘_’ (matches any single character), providing flexibility in searching for data based on patterns.


FROM customers
WHERE first_name LIKE 'J%';

5. IN Operator:
The IN operator is used to filter data based on a set of specified values. It simplifies queries where you want to retrieve records that match any value within a predefined list.


FROM products
WHERE category_id IN (1, 3, 5);

Practical Applications:

  • Filtering Data: SQL operators play a crucial role in filtering data based on specific conditions. For example, using comparison operators in a WHERE clause allows you to retrieve records that meet certain criteria.
  • Calculations: Arithmetic operators are used to perform calculations on numerical data within the database. This is particularly handy when you need to derive new insights or generate summary statistics.
  • Conditional Logic: Logical operators are essential for constructing complex queries that involve multiple conditions. This is especially useful when dealing with large datasets and intricate relationships between data points.
  • String Manipulation: The concatenation operator enables the manipulation of string data, allowing for the creation of more meaningful and informative output.

Related Question

SQL operators are symbols or keywords used to perform operations on one or more values in SQL statements

SQL operators can be categorized into Arithmetic operators, Comparison operators, Logical operators, and Bitwise operators.

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations on numerical values. Common ones include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%).


The BETWEEN operator is used to filter the result set based on a range of values. It is often used in conjunction with the WHERE clause

The IS NULL operator is used to filter rows where a specified column contains a NULL value.


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