File Handling in Python
Python is a versatile programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It’s widely used in various fields, including web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and more. One fundamental aspect of Python programming is file handling, which allows you to work with files and perform tasks like reading, writing, and manipulating data.
File handling refers to the process of creating, reading, writing, and manipulating files on a computer’s storage system. In Python, you can perform file handling operations using built-in functions and methods, making it easy to work with files of different types, such as text files, binary files, and more.
In the below PDF we discuss about File Handling in Python in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.
File Handling Operations:
Opening a File:
Before you can perform any operations on a file, you need to open it. Python provides the open() function for this purpose. Here’s a basic example of how to open a file:
file = open("example.txt", "r") # Open "example.txt" in read-only mode
In the code above:
“example.txt” is the name of the file you want to open.
“r” specifies the mode in which the file is opened. In this case, “r” stands for read-only mode.
Common file modes include:
“r”: Read-only mode (default).
“w”: Write mode (creates a new file or overwrites an existing file).
“a”: Append mode (appends data to an existing file).
“b”: Binary mode (for binary files, e.g., “rb” for reading a binary file).
Reading from a File:
Once you’ve opened a file for reading, you can read its contents using various methods. One common method is read():
file = open("example.txt", "r")
content = file.read()
In this code snippet, read() reads the entire content of the file and stores it in the content variable. Don’t forget to close the file using close() when you’re done to free up system resources.
You can also read a file line by line using a for loop:
file = open("example.txt", "r")
for line in file:
This code snippet reads the file line by line, which is useful for large files that might not fit into memory all at once.
Writing to a File:
To write data to a file, you can open it in write mode (“w”) or append mode (“a”) using the open() function. Here’s an example of writing data to a file:
file = open("output.txt", "w")
file.write("This is a test file.")
In this example, we create a new file called output.txt and write two lines of text to it. If the file already exists, using “w” mode will overwrite its contents, so be cautious.
File handling in Python refers to the process of reading from and writing to files using Python’s built-in functions and methods. It allows you to work with external files to store, retrieve, and manipulate data.
You can open a file in Python using the open() function. For example: file = open(“example.txt”, “r”) opens the file “example.txt” in read mode.
You can close a file in Python using the close() method. For example: file.close().
read(): Reads the entire content of the file or a specified number of characters if given.
readline(): Reads a single line from the file. It moves the file pointer to the next line.
You can write data to a file in Python using the write() method. For example: file.write(“Hello, World!”) writes the string “Hello, World!” to the file.