Exception Handling in Java

An exception is an event that disrupts the normal flow of program execution. Exception handling in Java refers to the process of dealing with unexpected or exceptional situations that occur during the execution of a program. These exceptional situations, known as exceptions, can include errors such as division by zero, file not found, out of memory, and so on.

In the below PDF we discuss about Exception Handling in Java  in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.

Types of Exceptions Handling in Java

In Java, exceptions are categorized into two main types: checked exceptions and unchecked exceptions.

  1. Checked Exceptions: Checked exceptions are exceptions that the compiler forces you to handle. These are typically external factors beyond the program’s control, such as file input/output errors or network issues. Examples of checked exceptions include IOException, FileNotFoundException, and SQLException.
  2. Unchecked Exceptions: Unchecked exceptions, also known as runtime exceptions, are exceptions that do not need to be explicitly caught or declared. These exceptions usually occur due to programming errors, such as attempting to access an array element out of bounds or invoking a method on a null object reference. Examples of unchecked exceptions include NullPointerException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, and ArithmeticException.

Java Exception Handling Keywords:

  1. try: The try keyword is used to enclose the code that might throw an exception. It is followed by one or more catch blocks or a finally block.
  2. catch: The catch keyword is used to catch and handle exceptions that occur within the corresponding try block. It specifies the type of exception to catch and the code to execute when that exception occurs.
  3. finally: The finally keyword is used to define a block of code that is always executed, regardless of whether an exception occurs or not. It is typically used to release resources or perform cleanup operations.
  4. throw: The throw keyword is used to explicitly throw an exception within a method. It is followed by an instance of an exception class or a subclass of Throwable.
  5. throws: The throws keyword is used in method declarations to indicate that the method might throw certain types of exceptions. It specifies the exceptions that the method might propagate to its caller, allowing the caller to handle them.

An Exception Handling Example:

public class Example1 {
public static void main(String[] args) {
try {
int result = 10 / 0; // Division by zero
System.out.println("Result: " + result);
} catch (ArithmeticException e) {
System.out.println("Error: Division by zero");


In conclusion, exception handling is a crucial aspect of Java programming for writing reliable and robust applications. By understanding the different types of exceptions, using try-catch and finally blocks effectively, and following best practices, developers can create Java applications that gracefully handle errors and provide a better user experience.

Must Read: OOPs Concepts In Java, Classes & Objects in Java and Abstraction in Java

Related Question

Exception handling in Java is a mechanism used to deal with runtime errors or exceptional situations that may occur during the execution of a program. It helps in maintaining the normal flow of the program by gracefully handling these unexpected situations.

There are two types of exceptions in Java: checked exceptions and unchecked exceptions. Checked exceptions are checked at compile time, while unchecked exceptions are not checked at compile time.

Exceptions in Java are handled using try-catch blocks. The code that may throw an exception is enclosed within the try block, and the catch block catches the exception and handles it appropriately.

The finally block in Java exception handling is used to execute important code that should always run, regardless of whether an exception is thrown or not. It is often used for resource cleanup tasks like closing files or releasing database connections.

The main keywords used in Exception Handling are try, catch, finally, throw, and throws.


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