Cryptography in Computer Network

Cryptography is the science and practice of securing communication and data by converting plain text into unintelligible ciphertext and vice versa. It involves techniques for encrypting and decrypting information to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity in various communication channels and data storage systems. Cryptography plays a crucial role in protecting sensitive information from unauthorized access, interception, tampering, and forgery.

In the below PDF we discuss about Cryptography  in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.

components of cryptography:

  • Encryption: Encryption is the process of transforming plain text or data into ciphertext using cryptographic algorithms and keys.
    The resulting ciphertext appears as a random sequence of characters and is unintelligible without the corresponding decryption key.
    Encryption ensures confidentiality by preventing unauthorized users from understanding the original message or data.
  • Decryption: Decryption is the process of converting ciphertext back into its original form (plaintext) using the appropriate decryption key.
    Only authorized parties possessing the correct decryption key can decrypt the ciphertext and recover the original message or data.
  • Cryptographic Algorithms: Cryptographic algorithms are mathematical functions used to perform encryption and decryption operations.
    These algorithms utilize cryptographic keys to transform plaintext into ciphertext (encryption) and ciphertext back into plaintext (decryption).
    Common cryptographic algorithms include symmetric encryption (e.g., AES, DES) and asymmetric encryption (e.g., RSA, ECC).
  • Cryptographic Keys: Cryptographic keys are unique values used to control the encryption and decryption processes. In symmetric encryption, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption.
    In asymmetric encryption, a pair of keys (public and private keys) is used, where the public key is used for encryption, and the private key is used for decryption.

Types of Cryptography:

  1. Symmetric Key: Symmetric keys are a type of cryptography that is also known as private key cryptography or secret key cryptography. In this situation, both the information receiver and sender encrypt and decode the message using the same key. It is a method of encryption and decryption that employs the same shared key for both operations. The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt plaintext. The most frequent type of cryptography employed in this manner is AES (Advanced Encryption System). This type of method is entirely streamlined and faster to implement.
  2. Asymmetric key: The asymmetric key is a kind of cryptography, sometimes known as public-key cryptography. It uses a diversified and secure technique of information delivery. The most popular cryptography employed in this manner is RSA. An asymmetric key is a cryptography mechanism that uses two distinct keys for encryption and decoding. The two keys are known as the public key and the private key. The public key encrypts the data, and the private key decrypts it. The security of this method is predicated on the fact that it is computationally impossible to deduce the private key from the public one. Asymmetric key cryptography is widely used for secure communication, digital signatures, and public key infrastructure.
  3. Hash Functions: Types of cryptography in which an algorithm followed by a hash function accepts an arbitrary length of message as input and returns a set length of output. It is also known as a mathematical equation since it generates the hash message by inputting numerical values. This approach does not require a key because it is a one-way process. Each round of hashing operations treats input as an array of the most recent block and produces the last round of activity as output.


Cryptography serves as the cornerstone of security in computer networks, enabling secure communication, data protection, and trust in digital transactions. By leveraging encryption algorithms, digital signatures, and hash functions, cryptography ensures the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data exchanged over networks. As technology continues to evolve, cryptography will remain indispensable in safeguarding our digital lives against emerging threats and vulnerabilities.

Related Question

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties, commonly referred to as adversaries. It encompasses techniques such as encryption, decryption, hashing, and digital signatures to ensure confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation in data transmission.

Cryptography plays a crucial role in computer networks by ensuring that sensitive information remains confidential during transmission, verifying the integrity of data, authenticating the identities of communicating parties, and preventing unauthorized access and tampering.

Encryption is the process of converting plaintext or readable data into ciphertext, which is unreadable without the appropriate decryption key. It ensures confidentiality by scrambling the original message in such a way that only authorized parties can decipher it.

Decryption is the reverse process of encryption. It involves converting ciphertext back into its original plaintext form using a decryption key. Decryption allows authorized recipients to recover the original message and understand its contents.

Symmetric cryptography, also known as secret-key cryptography, uses the same key for both encryption and decryption processes. It is efficient for encrypting large amounts of data and is commonly used in scenarios where the communicating parties share a secure channel beforehand.


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