C++ Basic Input/Output

Input and output in C++ refer to the process of sending data into and out of your program. This data can come from various sources, such as the keyboard, files, or other devices, and it can be displayed on the screen or saved for later use. The C++ Standard Library (iostream) provides a convenient way to perform these operations.

In the below PDF we discuss about Input/Output in detail in simple language, Hope this will help in better understanding.

The iostream Library:

In C++, the primary components of I/O are encapsulated in the iostream library, which stands for “input-output stream.”

The two primary stream classes provided by this library are istream (for input) and ostream (for output), which are both derived from the ios base class.

Here’s a quick overview:

  • istream: Used for reading data from input sources, such as the keyboard or files.
  • ostream: Used for writing data to output destinations, such as the console or files.

You’ve probably seen cin and cout in C++ code before. These are instances of istream and ostream objects, respectively. They make it easy to perform common input and output operations.

Basic Input with cin:

The cin object is your gateway to receiving input from the user. You can use it to read various data types like integers, floating-point numbers, characters, and strings. Here’s a simple example of reading an integer from the user:

#include <iostream>

int main() {
int num;
std::cout << "Enter an integer: ";
std::cin >> num;
std::cout << "You entered: " << num << std::endl;
return 0;

In this example, std::cout is used for output, and std::cin is used for input. The >> operator is used to extract data from the input stream into the num variable.


Basic Output with cout:

The cout object is your tool for displaying information to the user. You can use it to print text, numbers, and other data to the console. Here’s an example:

#include <iostream>

int main() {
std::cout << "Hello, World!" << std::endl;
return 0;

In this simple program, std::cout is used to print the “Hello, World!” message to the console

Related Question

C++ input/output, often abbreviated as I/O, refers to the process of getting data into a program (input) and sending data out of a program (output). It allows programs to interact with users, files, and external devices

You can display text in C++ using the cout stream from the <iostream> library.


The endl manipulator in C++ is used to insert a newline character (‘\n’) into the output stream and flush the output buffer. It’s commonly used to move the cursor to the next line and ensure that the output is immediately displayed.

You can open and close files in C++ using the fstream class from the <fstream> library.

You can format output in C++ using various manipulators like setw, setprecision, and fixed to control the width, precision, and formatting of numbers and text when using cout.






Storage Classes in C++ In

Preprocessors in C++ A preprocessor

Standard Template Library in C++

Exception Handling in C++ Exception

Destructors in C++ A destructor

Constructors in C++ A constructor

Inheritance in C++ Inheritance is

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